As compared to various natural food colorants in similar hues.
- Both bixin and norbixin are insoluble in their native form. However, when hydrolyzed in alkaline solution, the pigments exhibit good water solubility.
- Annatto is susceptible to oxidation
- Annatto is reasonably stable to heat; however thermal degradation of the pigments may occur at elevated temperatures for a prolonged period
- Annatto pigments exhibit reasonable stability to light, although some fading will occur under prolonged exposure
- Carmine is unsuitable for vegetarian diets due to it source (cochineal insects)
- Carmine has been associated with allergenicity (anaphylactic shock)
- Paprika can be made water soluble with emulsifiers
- Paprika can possess a spicy odor
- Paprika may fade on prolonged exposure to bright sunlight
- Turmeric has very poor light stability
- Turmeric changes color at a pH above 8
- Spicy taste and odor can be removed via solvent extraction
- Turmeric can be rendered water soluble via emulsifiers
- Saffron has a distinctive flavor
- Not permitted in EU
(1) Food Colours, edited by Victoria Emerton, Leatherhead Food International, 2008.
(2) Handbook on Natural Pigments in Food and Beverages: Industrial Applications for Improving Food Colors, edited by Reinhold Carle and Ralf M. Schweiggert, Woodhead Publishing, 2016.